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A centerfire cartridge has a centrally located primer held within a recess in the case head. Most centerfire brass cases used worldwide for sporting ammunition useBoxer primers. It is easy to remove and replace Boxer primers using standard reloading tools, cilitating reuse.

Another classification describes how cartridges are located in the chamber (headspace). Rimmed cartridges are located with the rim near the cartridge head; the rim is also used to extract the cartridge from the chamber. Examples are the.22 long rifleand.303 British. In a rimless cartridge, the cartridge head diameter is about the same as or smaller than the body diameter. The head will have a groove so the cartridge can be extracted from the chamber. Locating the cartridge in the chamber is accomplished by other means. Some rimless cartridges are necked down, and they are positioned by the cartridges shoulder. An example is the.30-06 Springfield. Pistol cartridges may be located by the end of the brass case. An example is the.45 ACP. Abelted cartridgehas a larger diameter band of thick metal near the head of the cartridge. An example is the.300 Weatherby Magnum. An extreme version of the rimless cartridge is the rebated case; guns employingadvanced primer ignitionneed such a case because the case moves during firing (i.e., it is not located at a fixed position). An example is the20mm110RB.

Nearly everysemi-automatic pistolcartridge is rimless, or more precisely has a rim of the same diameter as the case body. An extractor engages this rim by entering a cannelure near the base of the case. A few designs, known as semi-rimmed have a rim that is slightly larger than case body diameter but these function as a rimless design. All such cartridges headspace on the case mouth (although some, such as.38 Super, at one time seated on the rim, this was changed for accuracy reasons), which prevents the round from entering too r into the chamber. Some cartridges have a rim that is significantly smaller than case body diameter. These are known as rebated-rim designs, and almost always allow a handgun to fire multiple caliber cartridges with only a barrel andmagazinechange.

The name of any given cartridge does not necessarily reflect any cartridge or gun dimension. The name is merely the standardized and accepted moniker. SAAMI (Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manucturers Institute) and the European counterpart (CIP) and members of those organizations specify correct cartridge names. Cartridge names, when correctly presented, never include a naked leading decimal point.

Many such cartridges were designated by a three-number system, e.g., 45-120-3¼ Sharps: 45-caliber bore, 120 grains of (black) powder, 3¼-inch long case. Other times a similar three-number system indicated bore (caliber), charge (grains), and bullet weight (grains). The 45-70-500 Government is an example.

Modern centerfire cartridges are often loaded to about 65,000psi (450,000kPa) maximum chamber pressure. Conversely, no commercialized rimfire has ever been loaded above about 40,000psi (280,000kPa) maximum chamber pressure. However, with careful gun design and production, no fundamental reason exists that higher pressures could not be used. Despite the relative pressure disadvantage, modern rimfire magnums in .17-caliber, 5mm, and .22-caliber generate muzzle energy comparable to smaller centerfire cartridges.[citation needed]

Cartridges can be categorized by the type of their primers a small charge of animpact- orelectric-sensitivechemical mixture that is located at the center of the case head (centerfire), inside the rim of the case base (rimfireand the now obsolete cupfire), in a sideway projection that is shaped like pin (pinfire, now obsolete) or a lip (lipfire, now obsolete), or in a small nipple-like bulge at the case base (teat-fire, now obsolete).

In the United States, in 1857, the Flobert cartridge inspired the.22 Short(another rimfire), especially conceived for the first American revolver using rimfire cartridges, theSmith & Wesson Model 1. A year before, in 1856, the LeMat was the first American (French-designed) breech-loading revolver, but it used pinfire cartridges, not rimfire. Formerly, an employee of theColts Patent Firearms Manucturing CompanyRollin White, had been the first in America to conceive the idea of having the revolver cylinder bored through to accept metallic cartridges (circa1852), with the first in the world to use bored-through cylinders probably having been Leucheux in 1845, who invented a pepperbox-revolver loaded from the rear using bored-through cylinders.[23]However,Samuel Coltrefused this innovation. White left Colt, went to Smith & Wesson to rent a licence for his patent, and this is how the S&W Model 1 saw light of day in 1857. The patent didnt definitely expire until 1870, allowing Smith & Wesson competitors to design and commercialise their own revolving breech-loaders using metallic cartridges. Famous models of that time are the ColtsOpen Top(1871-1872) andSingle Action Army Peacemaker(1873). But in rifles, thelever-actionmechanism patents were not obstructed by Rollin Whitespatent infringementbecause White only held a patent concerning drilled cylinders and revolving mechanisms. Thus, larger caliber rimfire cartridges were soon introduced after 1857, when the Smith & Wesson .22 Short ammunition was introduced for the first time. Some of these rifle cartridges were used in the American Civil War, including the.44 Henryand56-56 Spencer(both in 1860). However, the large rimfire cartridges were soon replaced bycenterfirecartridges, which could safely handle higher pressures.[24][25]

Cartridges are classified by some major characteristics. One classification is the location of the primer. Early cartridges were pinfire, the next step was rimfire, and the next was centerfire.

Gases from the burning powder pressurize and expand the case to seal it against the chamber wall. These propellant gases push on the bullet base. In response to this pressure, the bullet will move in the path of least resistance which is down the bore of thebarrel. After the bullet leaves the barrel, the chamber pressure drops to atmospheric pressure. The case, which had been elastically expanded by chamber pressure, contracts slightly. This eases removal of the case from the chamber.

Where two numbers are used in a cartridge name, the second number may reflect a variety of things. Frequently the first number reflects bore diameter (inches or millimeters). The second number reflects case length (in inches or mm). For example, the7.6251mm NATOrefers to a bore diameter of 7.62mm and has an overall case length of 51mm. The commercial version is the.308 Winchester.)

The primary purpose is to be a handy all-in-one (projectile, right quantity of propellant, primer) for a shot. In modern, automatic weapons, it also provides the energy to move the parts of the gun which make it fire repeatedly. Many weapons were designed to make use of a readily available cartridge, or a new one with new qualities.

For a visual comparison of similar-diameter handgun cartridges with different rim design.

Bullet diameter is measured either as a fraction of an inch (usually in 1/100 or in 1/1000) or in millimeters. Cartridge case length can also be designated in inches or millimeters.

One downside caused by the increased strength of steel in the neck of these cases (compared to the annealed neck of a brass case) is that propellant gas can blow back past the neck and into the chamber. Constituents of these gases condense on the (relatively cold) chamber wall. This solid propellant residue can make extraction of fired cases difficult. This is less of a problem for small arms of the formerWarsaw Pactnations, which were designed with much larger chamber tolerances thanNATOweapons.

In 1867 the British war office adopted theEleyBoxermetallic centerfire cartridge case in thePattern 1853 Enfieldrifles, which were converted toSnider-Enfield breech-loaderson the Snider principle. This consisted of a block opening on a hinge, thus forming a lse breech against which the cartridge rested. The priming cap was in the base of the cartridge, and was discharged by astrikerpassing through the breech block. Other European powers adopted breech-loading military rifles from 1866 to 1868, with instead of metallic cartridge cases. The original Eley-Boxer cartridge case was made of thin-coiled brassoccasionally these cartridges could break apart and jam the breech with the unwound remains of the case upon firing. Later the solid-drawn, centerfire cartridge case, made of one entire solid piece of tough hard metal, an alloy of copper, with a solid head of thicker metal, has been generally substituted.[citation needed]

Plastic casesare commonly used inshotgunshells, and some manucturers offer polymer centerfire cartridges.

Rimfire priming was a popular solution before centerfire priming was perfected. In a rimfire case, centrifugal force pushes a liquid priming compound into the internal recess of the folded rim as the manucturer spins the case at a high rate and heats the spinning case to dry the priming compound mixture in place within the hollow cavity formed within the rim fold at the perimeter of the case interior.

It is a common misnomer to refer to a cartridge as a certain caliber, e.g. 30-06 caliber. The correct full name for this cartridge is.30-06 Springfield. The -06 means it was introduced in 1906. In sporting arms the only consistent definition of caliber is bore diameter. Dozens of unique .30-caliber cartridge types exist.

Around 1870, machined tolerances had improved to the point that the cartridge case was no longer necessary to seal a firing chamber. Precision-ced bolts would seal as well, and could be economically manuctured.[citation needed]However, normal wear and tear proved this system to be generally infeasible.

The projectile (seebelow) can be made of virtually anything.Leadis a material of choice because of high density, and ductility.

Most early all-metal cartridges were of thepinfireandrimfiretypes.

Mostrevolvercartridges have a rim at the base of the case that is larger than the case body is and which seats against or into the cylinder block to provideheadspacecontrol (to keep the cartridge from moving too r forward in the cylinder chamber) and to provide for easy extraction.

(From Left to Right): A.577 Snidercartridge (1867), a.577/450 Martini-Henrycartridge (1871), a later drawn brass .577/450Martini-Henrycartridge, and a.303 BritishMk VII SAA Ball cartridge.

The cartridge casesealsfiring chamberin all directions excepting thebore. Afiring pinstrikes the primer and ignites it. The primer compounddeflagrates, it does notdetonate(that is, it rapidly burns, but does not explode). A jet of burning gas from the primer ignites the propellant.

The first integrated cartridge was developed in Paris in 1808 by the Swiss gunsmithJean Samuel Paulyin association with French gunsmithFrançois Prlat. Pauly created the first fully self-contained cartridges:[11]the cartridges incorporated a copper base with integratedmercury fulminateprimer powder (the major innovation of Pauly), a round bullet and either brass or casing.[12][13]The cartridge was loaded through the breech and fired with a needle. The needle-activated centerfirebreech-loadinggun would become a major feature of firearms thereafter.[14]Pauly made an improved version, protected by a patent, on 29 September 1812.[11]

In theAmerican Civil War(186165) a breech-loading rifle, the Sharps, was introduced and produced in large numbers. It could be loaded with either a ball or a cartridge. After that war many were converted to the use of metal cartridges. The development bySmith & Wesson(amongst many others) of revolver handguns that used metal cartridges helped to establish cartridge firearms as the standard in the USA by the 1870s although many continue to use percussion revolvers well after that.[16]

Probably no invention connected with firearms has wrought such changes in the principle of gun construction as those effected by the expansive cartridge case. This invention has completely revolutionized the art of gun , has been successfully applied to all descriptions of firearms, and has produced a new and important industry: that of cartridge manucture. Its essential feature is preventing gas escaping the breech when the gun is fired, by means of an expansive cartridge case containing its own means of ignition. Previous to this invention shotguns and sporting rifles were loaded by means ofpowder flasksand shot bags or flasks, bullets, wads and copper caps, all carried separately. One of the earliest efficient modern cartridge cases was thepinfire cartridge, developed by French gunsmithCasimir Leucheuxin 1836.[15]It consisted of a thin weak shell made of brass and that expanded from the force of the explosion. This fit perfectly in the barrel, and thus formed an efficient gas check. A small percussion cap was placed in the middle of the base of the cartridge, and was ignited by means of a brass pin projecting from the side and struck by the hammer. This pin also afforded the means of extracting the cartridge case. This cartridge was introduced in England by Lang, of Cockspur Street, London, about 1845.

The next important advance in the method of ignition was the introduction of the copperpercussion cap. This was only generally applied to the British military musket (theBrown Bess) in 1842, a quarter of a century after the invention of percussion powder and after an elaborate government test at Woolwich in 1834. The invention that made the percussion cap possible was patented by the Rev. A. J. Forsyth in 1807, and consisted of priming with a fulminating powder made ofpotassium chlorate, sulfur, and charcoal, which ignited by concussion. This invention was gradually developed, and used, first in a steel cap, and then in a copper cap, by various gunmakers and private individuals before coming into general military use nearly thirty years later.[citation needed]

3.the propellant, for examplegunpowderorcordite;

Critical cartridge specifications include neck size, bullet weight andcaliber, maximum pressure,headspace, overall length, case body diameter and taper, shoulder design,rim type, etc. Generally, every characteristic of a specific cartridge type is tightly controlled and few types are interchangeable in any way. Exceptions do exist but generally, these are only where a shorter cylindrical rimmed cartridge can be used in a longer chamber, (e.g., .22 Short in .22 Long Rifle chamber, and .38 Special in a .357 Magnum chamber).Centerfireprimer type (Boxer or Berdan, see below) is interchangeable, although not in the same case. Deviation in any of these specifications can result in firearm damage and, in some instances, injury or death. Similarly, use of the wrong type of cartridge in any given gun can damage the gun, or cause bodily injury.

This cartridge was used withmuzzle-loadingmilitary firearms, probably more often than for sporting shooting, the base of the cartridge being ripped or bitten off by the soldier, the powder poured into the barrel, and the and bullet rammed down the barrel.[8]In the Civil War era cartridge, the was supposed to be discarded, but soldiers often used it as a wad.[9]To ignite the charge an additional step was required where a finer-grained powder called priming powder was poured into the pan of the gun to be ignited by the firing mechanism.

The case is commonly made ofbrassbecause it is resistant to corrosion. A brass case head can be work-hardened to withstand the high pressures of cartridges, and allow for manipulation via extraction and ejection without tearing the metal. The neck and body portion of a brass case is easily annealed to make the caseductileenough to allow reforming so that it can be reloaded many times.

The8 mm Lebelammunition, developed in 1886, the firstsmokeless gunpowdercartridge to be made and adopted by any country.

Aluminumcased cartridges are available commercially. These are generally not reloaded as aluminum tigues easily during firing and resizing. Some calibers also have non-standard primer sizes to discourage reloaders from attempting to reuse these cases.

Paper cartridgeshave been in use for nearly as long as hand-held firearms, with a number of sources dating their use back to the late 14th century. Historians note their use by soldiers ofChristian Iin 1586,[not in citation given]while the Dresden Museum[which?]has evidence dating their use to 1591, and Capo Bianco wrote in 1597 that cartridges had long been in use by Neapolitan soldiers. Their use became widespread by the 17th century.[3]The 1586 cartridge consisted of a charge ofpowderand abulletin a tube. Thick is still known as cartridge from its use in these cartridges.[4]Another source states the cartridge appeared in 1590.[5]KingGustavus Adolphus of Swedenhad his troops use cartridges in the 1600s.[6]The was formed a cylinder with twisted ends; the ball was at one end, and the measured powder filled the rest.[7]

The first metallic centerfire cartridge had technically been invented byJean Samuel Paulyin the first decades of the 19th century. However, it bore little resemblance to the modern centerfire cartridge which would be invented in the mid-19th century. FrenchmanLouis-Nicolas Flobertinvented in 1845, forindoor shootingsecurity, the first rimfire metallic cartridge, constituted by a bullet fit in a percussion cap.[17][18]Usually derived in the 6mm and 9mm calibres, it is since then called the Flobert cartridge or the Bosquette cartridge but it doesnt contain any powder, the onlypropellantsubstance contained in the cartridge is the percussion cap itself.[19]In English-speaking countries the Flobert cartridge corresponds to.22 BBand.22 CBammunition.

French gunsmithBenjamin Houllierimproved the Leucheux pinfire cardboard cartridge and patented in Paris in 1846, the first fully metallic pinfire cartridge containing powder (and a pinfire), in a metallic cartridge.[15][20]He also included in his patent claims rim and centerfire primed cartridges using brass or copper casings.[12]Houllier commercialised his weapons in association with the gunsmiths Blanchard or Charles Robert.[21][22]

4.the rim, which provides the extractor on the firearm a place to grip the casing to remove it from the chamber once fired;

Some European- and Asian-manuctured military and sporting ammunition usesBerdan primers. Removing the spent primer from (decapping) these cases requires use of a special tool because the primer anvil (on which the primer compound is crushed) is an integral part of the case and the case therefore does not have a central hole through which a decapping tool can push the primer out from the inside, as is done with Boxer primers. In Berdan cases, the flash holes are located to the sides of the anvil. With the right tool and components, reloading Berdan-primed cases is perfectly feasible. However, Berdan primers are not readily available in the U.S.

Compared to modern centerfire cases used in the strongest types of modern guns, existing rimfire cartridge designs use loads that generate relatively low pressure because of limitations of feasible gun design the rim has little or no lateral support from the gun. Such support would require very close tolerances in design of the chamber, bolt, and firing pin. Because that is not cost-effective, it is necessary to keep rimfire load pressure low enough so that the stress generated by chamber pressure that would push the case rim outward cannot expand the rim significantly. Also, the wall of the folded rim must be thin and ductile enough to easily deform, as necessary to allow the blow from the firing pin to crush and thereby ignite the primer compound, and it must do so without rupturing, If it is too thick, it will be too resistant to deformation. If it is too hard, it will crack rather than deform. These two limitations that the rim is self-supporting laterally and that the rim is thin and ductile enough to easily crush in response to the firing pin impact limit rimfire pressures.[25]

A cartridge without a projectile is called ablank. One that is completelyinert(contains no active primer and no propellant) is called adummy. One that iled to ignite and shoot off the projectile is called adud, and one that ignited but iled to sufficiently push the projectile out of the barrel is called asquib.

A variety of rifle cartridges: (1).17 HM2(2).17 HMR(3).22LR(4).22 Win Mag R/F.22 WMR(5).17/23 SMc(6)5mm/35 SMc(7).22 Hornet(8).223 Remington(9).223 WSSM(10).243 Win(11).243 Win Improved (Ackley)(12).25-06 Remington(13).270 Winchester(14).308 Win(15).30-06 Springfield(16).45-70 Government(17).50-90 Sharps

French ArmyFusil Gras mle 1874metallic cartridge.

The.38 Specialactually has a nominal bullet diameter of 0.3570 inches (9.07mm) (jacketed) or 0.3580 inches (9.09mm) (lead) while the case has a nominal diameter of 0.3800 inches (9.65mm),. Hence the name. This is historically logical. The hole drilled through the chambers of .36-caliber cap-and-ball revolvers when converting those to work with cartridges was 0.3800 inches (9.65mm) and the cartridges made to work in those revolvers was logically named the.38 Colt. The original cartridges used a heeled bullet like a .22 rimfire where the bullet was the same diameter as the case. Early Colt Army .38s have a bore diameter that will allow a .357 diameter bullet to slide through the barrel. The cylinder is bored straight through with no step. Later versions used an inside the case lubricated bullet of .357 diameter instead of the original .38 with a reduction in bore diameter. The difference in .38 Special bullet diameter and case diameter reflects the thickness of the case mouth (approximately 11/1000-inch per side). The.357 Magnumevolved from the .38 Special. The .357 was named to reflect bullet diameter (in thousandths inch), not case diameter. Magnum was used to indicate its longer case and higher operating pressure.

Later developments rendered this method of priming unnecessary, as, in loading, a portion of the charge of powder passed from the barrel through the vent into the pan, where it was held by the cover and hammer.[citation needed]

There is considerable variation in cartridge nomenclature. Names sometimes reflect various characteristics of the cartridge. For example, the .308 Winchester uses a bullet of 308/1000-inch diameter and was standardized by Winchester. Conversely, cartridge names often reflect nothing related to the cartridge in any obvious way. For example, the .218 Bee uses a bullet of 224/1000-inch diameter, fired through a .22-in bore, etc. The 218 and Bee portions of this cartridge name reflect nothing other than the desires of those who standardized that cartridge. Many similar examples exist, for example: .219 Zipper, .221 Fireball, .222 Remington, .256 Winchester, .280 Remington, .307 Winchester, .356 Winchester.

Military and commercial producers continue to pursue the goal ofcaseless ammunition. Someartilleryammunition uses the same cartridge concept as found insmall arms. In other cases, theartillery shellis separate from the propellant charge.

The evolving nature of ware required a firearm that could load and fire more rapidly, resulting in the flintlock musket (and later the Baker rifle), in which the pan was covered by furrowed steel. This was struck by the flint and fired the gun. In the course of loading a pinch of powder from the cartridge would be placed into the pan as priming, before the rest of the cartridge was rammed down the barrel, providing charge and wadding.[citation needed]

Centerfire cartridges with solid-drawn metallic cases containing their own means of ignition are almost universally used in all modern varieties of military and sporting rifles and pistols.[citation needed]

Historically had been used in the earliest cartridges.

The propellant was longgunpowder, still in use, but superseded by better compositions, generically calledSmokeless powder.

Earlyprimerwas simply fine gunpowder poured into a pan or tube where it could be ignited by some external source of ignition such as a fuse or a spark. Modern primers are shock sensitive chemicals enclosed in a small (a few mm) capsule,original cartridge Cartridge (firearms ignited by percussion. In some instance ignition is electricity-primed, and there may even be no primer at all in such design (the propellant being directly ignited).

Steelis used in someplinkingammunition, as well as in some military ammunition (mainly from theformer Soviet UnionandChina). Steel is less expensive than brass, but it is not feasible to reload and reuse steel cases. Military forces typically consider small arms cartridge cases to be disposable, one-time-use devices. However, case weight (mass) affects how much ammunition a soldier can carry, so the lighter steel cases do have a military advantage. Conversely, steel is more susceptible to contamination and damage so all such cases are varnished or otherwise sealed against the elements.

The alteration of the military flint-lock to the percussionmusketwas easily accomplished by replacing the powder pan by a perforated nipple, and by replacing the cock or hammer that held the flint with a smaller hammer that had a hollow to fit on the nipple when released by the trigger. The shooter placed a percussion cap (now made of three parts ofpotassium chlorate, two offulminate of mercuryand powdered glass) on the nipple. The detonating cap thus invented and adopted, brought about the invention of the modern cartridge case, and rendered possible the general adoption of thebreech-loadingprinciple for all varieties ofriflesshotgunsandpistols. This greatly streamlined the reloading procedure and paved the way for semi- and full-automatic firearms.[citation needed]

Often, the name reflects the company or individual who standardized it, such as the.30 Newton, or some characteristic important to that person.

In the mid- to late-1800s, many rimfire cartridge designs existed. Today only a few, mostly for use in small-caliber guns, remain in general and widespread use. These include the .17 Mach II, .17 Hornady Magnum Rimfire (HMR), 5mm Remington Magnum (Rem Mag), .22 (BB, CB, Short, Long, Long Rifle), and .22 Winchester Magnum Rimfire (WMR).

Cartridge specifications are determined by several standards organizations, includingSAAMIin the United States, many European states. NATO also performsits own testsfor military cartridges for its member nations; due to differences in testing methods, NATO cartridges (headstampedwith the NATO cross) may present an unsafe combination when loaded into a weapon chambered for a cartridge certified by one of the other testing bodies.[2]

In olderblack powdercartridges, the second number typically refers to powder charge, ingrains. For example, the.50-90 Sharpshas a .50-inch bore and used a nominal charge of 90.0 grains (5.83g) of black powder.

The .22 LR and related rimfire .22 cartridges use a heeled bullet, where external diameter of the case is the same as diameter of the forward portion of the bullet and where the rearward portion of the bullet, which extends into the case, is necessarily smaller in diameter than the main body of the bullet.

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Acartridgeis a type ofpackaging aprojectilebulletshotsorslug), apropellantsubstance (usually eithersmokeless powderorblack powder) and an ignition device (primer) within ametallicorplasticcase that is precisely made to fit within theof a, for the practical purpose of convenient transportation and shooting.[1]In popular use, the term bullet is often misused to call a complete cartridge, though it technically only refers to the projectile part of the cartridge.

Today,.22 LR(Long Rifle) accounts for the vast majority of all rimfire ammunition used. Standard .22 LR rounds use an essentially pure lead bullet plated with a typical 95% copper, 5% zinc combination. These are offered insupersonicand subsonic types, as well as target, plinking, and hunting versions. These cartridges are usually coated with a hard wax for fouling control.

But this big leap forward came at a price. It introduced an extra component into each round the cartridge case which had to be removed before the gun could be reloaded. While a flintlock, for example, is immediately ready to reload once it has been fired, adopting brass cartridge cases brought in the problems of extraction and ejection. The mechanism of a modern gun not only must load and fire the piece but also must remove the spent case, which might require just as many added moving parts. Manymalfunctionsinvolve this process, either through ilure to extract a case properly from the chamber or by allowing the extracted case to jam the action. Nineteenth-century inventors were reluctant to accept this added complication and experimented with a variety ofcaselessor self-consuming cartridges before finally accepting that the advantages of brass cases r outweighed this one drawback.[10]

laser printer toner refill price compatible printer toner This article is about modern metallic small-arms cartridges. For older, , small-arms cartridges, seePaper cartridge. For cartridges used with larger arms, seeArtillery Ammunition. For other uses, seeCartridge (disambiguation).

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